Description of the publication:

Authors:

Sikora, A., Woszczyna, M., Friedemann, M., Ahlers, F.J., Kalbac, M.

Title:

AFM diagnostics of graphene–based quantum Hall devices

Journal:

Micron

Year:

2012

Vol:

43 (2–3)

Pages:

479–486

ISSN/ISBN:

09684328

DOI:

10.1016/j.micron.2011.11.010

Link:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968432811002228/

Keywords:

Atomic force microscopy; Graphene; Kelvin probe force microscopy; Mechanical properties mapping; Quantum Hall effect devices

Abstract:

In this paper we present the results of morphological, mechanical and electrical investigation of the properties of prepared graphene flakes and graphene–based quantum Hall devices. AFM imaging allowed us to identify the local imperfections and unintentional modifications of the graphene sheets which had caused severe deterioration of the device electrical performance. Utilizing the NanoSwing imaging method, based on the time–resolved tapping mode, we could observe non–homogeneities of the structural and mechanical properties. We also diagnosed the device under working conditions by Kelvin probe microscopy and detected its local electric field distribution.

References:

♦ Adam, S., A self–consistent theory for graphene transport (2007) PNAS, 104, pp. 18392–18397
♦ Bae, S., Roll–to–roll production of 30–inch graphene films for transparent electrodes (2010) Nature nanotechnology, 5 (8), pp. 574–578
♦ Binnig, G., Quate, C.F., Gerber, C., Atomic force microscope (1986) Physical Review Letters, 56 (9), pp. 930–933
♦ Burnett, T., Yakimova, R., Kazakova, O., Mapping of local electrical properties in epitaxial graphene using electrostatic force microscopy (2011) Nano letters, 11 (6), pp. 2324–2328
♦ Choi, J.S., Friction anisotropy–driven domain imaging on exfoliated monolayer graphene (2011) Science, 333 (6042), pp. 607–610
♦ Cullen, W., High–fidelity conformation of graphene to SiO2 topographic features (2010) Physical Review Letters, 105, p. 215504
♦ Curtin, A.E., Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport in graphene on SiC(0001) in the minimum conductivity regime (2011) Applied Physics Letters, 98 (24), p. 243111
♦ Fan, X., Nouchi, R., Tanigaki, K., Effect of charge puddles and ripples on the chemical reactivity of single layer graphene supported by SiO2/Si substrate (2011) Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115 (26), pp. 12960–12964
♦ Fasolino, A., Los, J.H., Katsnelson, M.I., Intrinsic ripples in graphene (2007) Nature Materials, 6, pp. 858–861
♦ Ferrari, A.C., Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers (2006) Physical Review Letters, 97 (18), p. 187401
♦ Frank, I.W., Mechanical properties of suspended graphene sheets (2007) Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, 25 (6), p. 2558
♦ Garcia, R., San Palo, A., Attractive and repulsive tip–sample interaction regimes in tapping–mode atomic force microscopy (1999) Physical Review B, 60, pp. 4961–4967
♦ Garcia, R., Perez, R., Dynamic atomic force microscopy methods (2002) Surface Science Reports, 47, pp. 197–301
♦ Jiang, J.–W., Wang, J.–S., Li, B., Young's modulus of graphene: a molecular dynamics study (2009) Physical Review B, 80, p. 113405
♦ Lohmann, T., von Klitzing, K., Smet, J.H., Four–terminal magneto–transport in graphene p–n junctions created by spatially selective doping (2009) Nano Letters, 9, pp. 1973–1979
♦ Martin, J., Observation of electron–hole puddles in graphene using a scanning single–electron transistor (2008) Nature Physics, 4, pp. 144–148
♦ Nemesincze, P., Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (2008) Carbon, 46 (11), pp. 1435–1442
♦ Nonnenmacher, M., O'Boyle, M.P., Wickramasighe, H.W., Kelvin probe force microscopy (1991) Applied Physics Letters, 58 (25), pp. 2921–2923
♦ Novoselov, K.S., Two–dimensional gas of massless dirac fermions in graphene (2005) Nature, 438 (7065), pp. 197–200
♦ Reina, A., Large area, few–layer, graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical, vapor deposition (2009) Nano Letters, 9, pp. 30–35
♦ Sikora, A., The influence of the electrical field on structures dimension measurement in Electrostatic Force Microscopy mode (2009) Optica Applicata, 39 (4), pp. 933–941
♦ Sikora, A., Bednarz, L., Mapping of mechanical properties of the surface by utilization of torsional oscillation of the cantilever in atomic force microscopy (2011) Central European Journal of Physics, 9 (2), pp. 372–379
♦ Tan, Y.–W., Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene (2007) Physical Review Letters, 99, p. 246803
♦ von Klitzing, K., The quantized Hall effect (1986) Reviews of Modern Physics, 58, pp. 519–531
♦ Zhang, Y., Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene (2005) Nature, 438, pp. 201–204

Example figure:

Combined 3D topography and surface potential image of the graphene-based electronic structure.

Used methods:

TapppingMode
NanoSwing
Surface Potential Imaging (Kelvin Probe Microscopy)