Description of the publication:

Authors:

Andrzej Sikora, £ukasz Bednarz

Title:

Mapping of the surface's mechanical properties due to analysis of torsional cantilever bending in dynamic force microcopy

Journal:

Springer

Year:

2012

Vol:

---

Pages:

315–350

ISSN/ISBN:

978-3-642-27494-7

DOI:

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Link:

http://www.springer.com/physics/optics+%26+lasers/book/978-3-642-27493-0/

Keywords:

atomic force microscopy, torsional oscillations, time–resolved intermittent contact mode, mechanical properties mapping

Abstract:

In atomic force microscopy, the cantilever probes provide detection of the tip–sample forces. They are therefore used for the surface's topography imaging as well as the mechanical properties mapping at nanoscale. As in most techniques developed for local stiffness imaging based on the so called contact mode, the force applied to the surface may exceed a certain level causing damage to the sample. On the other hand, the most popular measurement technique based on the intermittent contact mode, where dynamic tip–sample interactions are measured and processed in order to provide surface's shape tracking as well as imaging of energy dissipation, allows to perform the measurements with much less force and can be applied to a wide range of samples. This method, however, is insufficient in many cases, as it cannot provide detailed information about certain mechanical properties of the surface. Therefore, a new approach has been lately developed and successfully utilized in a number of applications. By the analysis of higher harmonics of the cantilever's oscillation, one can obtain more specific information about the tip–sample interaction than in the case of phase imaging based on the intermittent contact mode. Moreover, the time–resolved intermittent contact mode, where advanced high–bandwidth signal processing is implemented, allows performing fast imaging of the stiffness, adhesion, peak force and energy dissipation. As this technique provides gentle interaction with the surface, it can be even used in imaging of fragile objects, such as biological samples. Due to the mechanical properties of the cantilever causing significant deformations of the detected signal, the torsional bending of the cantilever is utilized in order to obtain the desired signal. In this chapter we discuss the principles of the implementation of this method and its application issues.

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Example figure:

Combined 3D topography and adhesion image of the PS-LDPE sample.

Used methods:

NanoSwing