Description of the publication:


S. S. Kamble, A. Sikora, S. T. Pawar, N. N. Maldar, L. P. Deshmukh


Cobalt Sulfide Thin Films: Chemical Growth, Reaction Kinetics and Microstructural Analysis


Journal of Alloys and Compounds












Chemical bath deposition, CoS, AFM, MFM, XRD, Optical studies


CoS thin films were successfully deposited from an aqueous alkaline bath containing ammonia and TEA as the complexing agents. Under the pre-optimized conditions (temperature = 80 ± 0.5 ºC, speed of the substrate rotation = 65 ± 2 rpm and deposition period = 90 min), ammonia and TEA quantities in the reaction bath were found to play a decisive role in the final product yield. Highly uniform, dark sea-green colored and tightly adherent deposits were obtained at our experimental conditions. As-obtained CoS thin films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal class of crystal system as derived from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex multifaceted webbed network of as-grown CoS crystals elongated and threaded into each other were observed through a scanning electron microscope. Atomic force micrographs revealed collapsing of the hillocks and filling of the valleys triggering decrease in the RMS roughness for increased TEA and NH3 quantities. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was employed to study surface topography in terms of magnetic mapping. MFM images highlighted the existence of the magnetic clusters imitating topography. Broad absorption edge with high absorption coefficient (α ≈ 104 cm-1) was observed for as-grown CoS thin films. Determined values of the optical bandgaps revealed influence of complexing environment on the final product.


♦ S.T. Mane, S.S. Kamble, L.P. Deshmukh, Mater. Lett. 65 (2011) 2639-2641.
♦ S.A. Lendave, P.C. Pingale, L.P. Deshmukh, Rare Metal Mater. Eng. 41 (2012) 43-46.
♦ F.C. Eze, C.E. Okeke, Mater. Chem. Phys. 47 (1997) 31-36.
♦ F. Tao, Y.Q. Zhao, G.Q. Zhang, H.L. Li, Electrochem. Commun. 9 (2007) 1282.
♦ W.H. Shi, J.X. Zhu, X.H. Rui, X.H. Cao, C. Chen, H. Zhang, H.H. Hng, Q.Y. Yan, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 (2012) 2999.
♦ S.J. Bao, Y. Li, C.M. Li, Q. Bao, Q. Lu, J. Guo, J. Cryst. Growth 8 (2008) 3745.
♦ A. Wold, K. Dwight, Solid State Chemistry, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993.
♦ C.N.R. Rao, K.P.R. Pisharody, Prog. Solid State Chem. 10 (1976) 207.
♦ G. Hodes, Chemical Solution Deposition of Semiconductor Films, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2004.
♦ K.L. Chopra, Thin Film Technology and Applications, in: K.L. Chopra, L.K. Malhotra (Eds.), vol. 1, T.M.H. Publishing Co., New Delhi, India, 1984.
♦ D.B. Mitzi (Ed.), Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey, 2009.
♦ J.A. Venables, Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
♦ G. Hodes, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 2181.
♦ J.A. Dean, Lange′s Handbook of Chemistry, 13th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985. pp. 7-517.
♦ S.B. Patil, A.K. Singh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256 (2010) 2884-2889.
♦ A. Wei, J. Liu, M. Zhuang, Y. Zhao, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16 (2013) 1478-1484.
♦ Z. Liang, K. Sasikumar, P. Keblinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 065901.
♦ N.F. Mott, E.A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-crystalline Materials, Mott and Davis Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971.

Example figure:

3D view of the surface of the sample combined with colour map representing magnetic domains orientation.

Used methods:

Magnetic Force Microscopy